Maintenance of Hokkien Language by Its Speakers in Medan

Linda Wijaya, Amrin Saragih, Zainuddin Zainuddin
https://doi.org/10.35307/saltel.v3i1.43

Abstract


Indonesia is famous for various culture that attracts many tourists from several part of the world to have a visit. Besides having numerous culture, Indonesia is flourished with different ethnics, too, such as the Javanese, the Bataknese, the Indian and the Chinese. Every ethnic speak with different language, but formally the national language is Indonesian language. In this study, the researcher, who derives from Chinese ethnic and resides in Medan, has taken interest in preserving her mother tongue which is Hokkien language. Hokkien language is an informal language which is used by the Hokkien speakers to communicate with one another. In maintaining language, the researcher focuses on the phenomena that happens lately, the researcher feels that Hokkien language is not important for some of the young family in Medan, they teach their children the other language that develops immensely throughout people life. Even though some still maintain Hokkien language, the researcher feels that children do not put any interest in speaking their mother tongue. This will give negative impact to the language existence. The problem in this study is concerned with factors influencing the preservation of Hokkien language. The presentation of the data described in qualitative descriptive method and this study conducted through field survey with interviews and observation. The findings revealed that there are two kinds of language maintenance between young speakers and old speakers. The former has lesser effort in maintaining the language, while the latter has stronger effort. Despite the difference, all of Hokkien speakers still make use of the language in their daily activities. Other factors are the language status of Hokkien language as the mother tongue as well as the identity of Hokkien ethnic, the pride of the culture, and the solidary among Hokkien speakers.


Keywords


Hokkien Language; Language Maintenance; Hokkien Speakers

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ajzen, I. (1988). Attitudes, personality and behavior. Milton Keynes: Oxford University Press.

Awal, N. M. (2013). Maintenance of Mother Tongue: Patterns of Language Choice at the Malaysian-Thai Border. Malaysia: Elsevier Ltd.

Baker, C. (2001). Foundation of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Clevedon: Multilingual Matter.

Batubara, A. S. (2011). The Maintenance of Bahasa Mandailing in Tembung. English Applied Linguistic Study Program Post Graduate Program State University of Medan: Medan.

Baugh, J. (2011). Power, social diversity and language. In R. Mesthrie (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of sociolinguistics (pp. 17-28). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bohner, G., and M. Wanke. (2002). Attitudes and attitude change. Hove: Pschology Press.

Elmes, D. (2013). The Relationship between Language and Culture. National Institute of Fitness and Sports in Kanoya International Exchange and Language Education Center.

Ferguson, C. (1959) Diglossia. Word, 15, 325-340.

Fishman, J.A. (1972) Language maintenance and language shift as a field of inquiry: Revisited. Language in Sociocultural Change. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Fishman, J. (1972). Language in Sociocultural Change. Stanford, California: Stanford California Press.

Fishman, J. (1991). Reversing Language Shift. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

Garrett, P., N. Coupland, and A. Williams. (2003). Investigating language attitudes. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.

Giles, H. (1977) Language, Ethnicity and Intergroup Relations. London: Academic Press.

Hardjanto, T.D. (1997). Language Maintenance and Language Shift with Particular Reference to the Spread of English. Humaniora.

Holmes, J. (1992). An Introduction to Sociolinguistics (1st ed). Pearson Education Limited.

Holmes, J. (2001). An Introduction to Sociolinguistics (2nd ed). London: Longman.

Holmes, J. (2013). An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. London: Routledge.

Kibrik, A.E. (1991) The problems of endangered languages in the USSR. In R.H. Robins and E.M. Uhlenbeck (eds) Endangered Languages (pp. 257-273). Oxford: Berg Publishers.

Kobul, M.K. (2016). Language Shift and Maintenance in a Diglossia Environment with its Educational Implications: A Case Study. Journal of Narrative and Language Studies, 4 (7), 1-16.

Lestari, N.S. (2016). The Maintenance of Bahasa Banten in Langkat,Medan. Universitas Negeri Medan.

Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Mahadi, T.S. & S. M. Jafari. (2012). Language and Culture. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2(17).

Miles, M. B. & A. Michael Huberman. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis. London: Sage Publications Ltd.

Myers-Scotton. (2006). Multiple Voices: An Introduction to Bilingualism. Blackwell.

Ochs, E. (1993). Constructing social identity: A language socialization perspective. Research on language and Social Interaction, 26(3), 287-306.

Oppenheim, A. (1992). Questionnaire design, interviewing and attitude measurement. London: Continuum.

Paciotto, C. (2013). A Case Study of A Minority Language Maintenance Program in Italy: Students’ and Teachers’ Perspectives on the Slovene-Medium School Network. USA: Elsevier Ltd.

Saragih, A. (2010). Revitalisasi Bahasa Daerah. An Article on February 22, 2010, issued in Harian Waspada. Page C.6 Medan: Harian Waspada

Sari, R. A. (2015). Malay Language Maintenance Among the Speakers in Desa Baru Batang Kuis. Medan: Universitas Negeri Medan.

Schieffelin, B. B., & Ochs, E. (1986). Language socialization. Annual review of anthropology, 163-191.

Song, J. (2010). Language ideology and identity in transnational space: Globalization, migration, and bilingualism among Korean families in the USA. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 13(1), 23-42.

Spolsky, B. 1998. Sociolinguistics. Oxford University Press.

Tseng, V., & Fuligni, A. J. (2000). Parent‐Adolescent Language Use and Relationships Among Immigrant Families With East Asian, Filipino, and Latin American Backgrounds. Journal of Marriage and Family, 62(2), 465-476.



StatisticsArticle Metrics


This article has been read : 39 times
PDF file viewed/downloaded : 12 times

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


SALTeL Journal is abstracted and indexed in

     

     

 

Creative Commons License
SALTeL Journal. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.